Archive for the ‘Scuba diving’ Tag

Seafood Safety After an Oil Spill

A NOAA seafood tester examines shrimp as part of a sensory test.

Steve Wilson, chief quality officer for NOAA’s Seafood Inspection Program, demonstrates sensory analysis of a sample of shrimp on July 8, 2010, at NOAA’s National Seafood Inspection Laboratory in Pascagoula, Miss. (NOAA)

When oil spills into coastal waters, both federal and state governments have established protocols to test and monitor seafood safety. When spill response managers determine that seafood may be affected, the next step is to assess whether seafood is tainted or contaminated to levels that could pose a risk to human health through consumption.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are two ways that oil can cause seafood to be unfit for consumption.

The first is through the presence of certain levels of chemicals known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic. (Oil is composed of many chemicals. However, it is the carcinogenic, or potentially cancer-causing, PAHs which are of greatest concern because they can be harmful if consumed in sufficient amounts over a prolonged period of time.)

The second way seafood would be considered unfit for consumption is if it smells or tastes like a petroleum product. This is known as the presence of “taint.” Under U.S. law, a product tainted with petroleum is considered “adulterated” and is not permitted to be sold as food. Petroleum “taint” in and of itself is not necessarily harmful and may be present even when PAHs are below harmful levels; however, it should not be present at all.

NOAA, in collaboration with FDA and state health agencies, may conduct a combination of both sensory analysis and chemical analysis of tissue to determine if seafood is safe following a spill. The NOAA Seafood Inspection Program is often called upon to perform screening and training tasks following major oil spills. Program experts perform sensory analysis to detect oil taint. Additionally, NOAA’s science centers may conduct chemical analysis for petroleum contaminants.

Related Publications

The following OR&R publications provide information about monitoring seafood for contamination after an oil spill:

Managing Seafood Safety after an Oil Spill [PDF, 1.0 MB]: This 2002 guide was written to help seafood managers and other spill responders determine appropriate seafood management actions in response to a spill.

Guidance on Sensory Testing and Monitoring of Seafood for Presence of Petroleum Taint Following an Oil Spill [PDF, 1.7 MB]: This 2001 guidance document describes how to conduct sensory testing on seafood suspected of petroleum taint.

Order a copy: Contact us by email or phone (206.526.6400) to request a printed copy of these publications.

Seafood Safety During the Deepwater Horizon/BP Oil Spill

During the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010, NOAA Fisheries Service worked closely with the FDA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and state health and fisheries agencies in the Gulf of Mexico region to establish a protocol for use in re-opening oil-impacted areas closed to seafood harvesting. You can read more about the FDA’s testing protocol to re-open harvest waters that were closed in response to the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill.

More Information about Seafood Safety

Keeping Seafood Safe: Read about NOAA’s involvement to keep seafood safe during the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill, including closing and monitoring harvest areas, collecting seafood samples, and training Gulf state employees as sensory screeners.

Passing the “Sniff Test”: In Assessing Gulf Coast Seafood, the Nose Knows: The chief quality officer for NOAA’s Seafood Inspection Program provides a behind-the-scenes look at what it takes to ensure that the seafood that reaches your local market or seafood counter is safe to eat.

Sensory Analysis of Seafood Samples in Pascagoula, Miss. [Video]: Learn more as Rear Adm. Paul Zukunft, the Deepwater Horizon response FOSC tours NOAA’s seafood sample testing facility in Pascagoula, Miss. on Oct. 8, 2010.

Improving Seafood Safety Management After an Oil Spill [PDF, 1.6 MB]: This paper, published at the 2003 International Oil Spill Conference, aims to ease and expedite the decision-making process of seafood safety managers in the wake of an oil spill.

Source: Seafood Safety After an Oil Spill | response.restoration.noaa.gov

How Beach Cleanups Help Keep Microplastics out of the Garbage Patches 

 Lots of tiny pieces of plastic covering rocks.
Basket full of faded, old plastic bottles on a beach.
Cleaning up a few plastic bottles on a beach can make a big difference when it comes to keeping microplastics from entering the ocean. (NOAA)  Microplastics, tiny bits of plastic measuring 5 millimeters or less, are often the result of larger pieces of plastic breaking down on land before making it into the ocean. They can also come from cosmetics and fleece clothing. (NOAA)

JUNE 12, 2015 — These days plastic seems to be everywhere; unfortunately, that includes many parts of the ocean, from the garbage patches to Arctic sea ice.With this pollution increasingly in the form of tiny plastic bits, picking up a few bottles left on the beach can feel far removed from the massive problem of miniscule plastics floating out at sea.However, these two issues are more closely connected than you may think.But how do we get from a large plastic water bottle, blown out of an overfilled trash can on a beach, to innumerable plastic pieces no bigger than a sesame seed—and known as microplastics—suspended a few inches below the ocean surface thousands of miles from land?The answer starts with the sun and an understanding of how plastic deteriorates in the environment.

The Science of Creating Microplastics

Plastic starts breaking down, or degrading, when exposed to light and high temperatures from the sun. Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB), the same part of the light spectrum that can cause sunburns and skin cancer, starts this process for plastics.

This process, known as photo-oxidation, is a chemical reaction that uses oxygen to break the links in the molecular chains that make up plastic. It also happens much faster on land than in the comparatively cool waters of the ocean.

For example, a hot day at the beach can heat the sandy surface—and plastic trash sitting on it—up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. The ocean, on the other hand, gets darker and colder the deeper you go, and the average temperatures at its surface in July can range from 45 degrees Fahrenheit near Adak Island, Alaska, to 89 degrees in Cannon Bay, Florida.

Back on that sunny, warm beach, a plastic water bottle starts to show the effects of photo-oxidation. Its surface becomes brittle and tiny cracks start forming. Those larger shards of plastic break apart into smaller and smaller pieces, but they keep roughly the same molecular structure, locked into hydrogen and carbon chains. A brisk wind or child playing on the beach may cause this brittle outer layer of plastic to crumble. The tide washes these now tiny plastics into the ocean.

Once in the ocean, the process of degrading slows down for the remains of this plastic bottle. It can sink below the water surface, where less light and heat penetrate and less oxygen is available. In addition, plastics can quickly become covered in a thin film of marine life, which further blocks light from reaching the plastic and breaking it down.

An Incredible Journey

In general, plastic breaks down much, much more slowly in the ocean than on land. That means plastic objects that reach the ocean either directly from a boat (say trash or nets from a fishing vessel) or washed into the sea before much degradation has happened are much less likely to break into smaller pieces that become microplastics. This also applies to plastics that sink below the ocean surface into the water column or seafloor.

Instead, plastic that has spent time heating up and breaking down on land is most likely to produce the microplastics eventually accumulating in ocean gyres or garbage patches, a conclusion supported by the research of North Carolina State University professor Anthony Andrady and others.

Of course, microplastics in the form of “microbeads” in face wash and other cosmetics or microfibers in fleece clothing also can reach the ocean by slipping through waste water treatment systems.

However, regularly patrolling your favorite beach or waterway and cleaning up any plastic or other marine debris can go a long way to keeping millions of tiny microplastics—some so tiny they can only be seen with a microscope—from reaching the garbage patches and other areas of the ocean.

The great thing is anyone can do this and you don’t have to wait for the International Coastal Cleanup each September to get started.Find more tips and resources to help you on your way:

Source: How Beach Cleanups Help Keep Microplastics out of the Garbage Patches | response.restoration.noaa.gov

Sharks and Rays Without Borders

Sharks and Rays Without Borders

Although several countries have protections for sharks and rays in place, many species travel great distances, often crossing national boundaries. Their migratory routes are determined by nature, not by the borders we’ve drawn. International cooperation is vital to ensuring the survival of these exceptionally vulnerable migratory species. The Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) – a global wildlife treaty with 120 Parties — is uniquely suited to facilitate such action.

TAKE ACTION

In November 2014 in Quito, Ecuador, CMS Parties (member countries) from all over the world debated and decided on an unprecedented number of proposals that could greatly improve the outlook for 21 species of imperiled sharks and rays. Project AWARE was there to represent the voice of the dive community and to work with partner NGOs to urge the CMS Parties to commit to regional protections for the proposed shark and ray species. Such actions bring responsibilities for member countries to work nationally and regionally to safeguard listed species and ensure the health of their habitats throughout migratory pathways.

 Project AWARE CMS campaign #SharksWithoutBorders

Send a letter – Our letter campaign direct to delegates is now closed. Thank you to everyone involved. 28,804 letters were delivered to decision-makers urging them to support the shark and ray proposals.

Thunderclap – On 4th November, 632 people with a social media reach of almost 550k sent a loud unified message #SharksWithoutBorders.

Your support made a difference for:

  • All five sawfishes, nine devil rays, and the reef manta – proposed for CMS Appendix I & II. Appendix I is reserved for migratory species that are threatened with extinction and brings an obligation for CMS Parties to strictly protect these animals, restore their habitats, and mitigate obstacles to migration.

  • Two species of hammerheads, all three threshers, and the silky shark – proposed for CMS Appendix II, which encourages regional cooperative initiatives to conserve shared populations.

  • Threats to their migration routes and habitat, including marine debris. Our trash underwater harms marine animals, entangles sharks and rays, and damages critical marine environments. Much like migratory animals, marine debris crosses political boundaries, moving from one territorial sea to the open ocean and ending up in another nation’s waters. As a multilateral environmental agreement, CMS can also address this issue, and thereby further improve the outlook for marine species.

Fact sheets on the newly listed species and how the listings might help them can be found here.

Sharks in Peril

We are emptying the ocean of sharks. Thankfully, divers are some of sharks’ closest and most influential allies. Together, we are creating a powerful, collective voice to lead global grassroots change. You’ve helped us secure a stronger EU finning ban and bring about safeguards for highly traded shark and ray species under CITES.

Sharks in Peril

TAKE ACTION

Here’s why your actions to protect sharks matter:

Nearly one out of four shark and ray species is classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) as Threatened with extinction and ray species are found to be at higher risks than sharks. That doesn’t even include almost half of all sharks and ray species whose population status cannot be assessed because of lack of information.

Why do we worry about shark populations? A healthy and abundant ocean depends on predators like sharks keeping ecosystems balanced. And living sharks fuel local economies in some places, like Palau where sharks bring in an estimated $18 million per year through dive tourism.

They may rule the ocean, but sharks are vulnerable. They grow slowly, produce few young, and, as such, are exceptionally susceptible to overexploitation.

Overfishing is driving sharks to the brink – with many populations down by 80 percent. Tens of millions are killed each year for their meat, fins, liver, and other products.

Bycatch– or catching sharks incidentally while fishing for other commercial species – poses a significant threat to sharks. At the same time, new markets for shark products are blurring the line between targeted and accidental catches.

Finning– Shark fins usually fetch a much higher price than shark meat, providing an economic incentive for the wasteful and indefensible practice of “finning” (removing shark fins and discarding the often still alive shark at sea).  Finning is often associated with shark overfishing, especially as keeping only the fins allows fishermen to kill many more sharks in a trip than if they were required to bring back the entire animal.

Shark fishing continues largely unregulated in most of the world’s ocean. Yet the future of sharks hinges on holding shark fishing and trade to sustainable levels. The best way to ensure an end to finning is to require that sharks are landed with their fins still “naturally” attached. Fishing limits must be guided by science and reflect a precautionary approach while trade must be controlled and monitored. We must also invest in shark research and catch reporting, and protect vital shark habitats. We can lead change locally through innovative, results orientated action on the ground. And last, but most definitely not least, if you choose to eat seafood, refrain from a purchase unless you can be certain that it’s coming from a sustainable source.

Source: Sharks in Peril

Mares Viper Pro w/bungee

Mares Viper Pro w/bungee

Viper PRO

The Viper Pro and Viper sling guns are characterized by excellent quality construction; paired with innovative technical solutions that make it possible to guarantee great precision, power, maximum rigidity, and manageability. Optional swiveling band fork adapter, for traditional dual slings. Stainless steel release mechanism in a reversed position, manufactured in stainless steel with high-precision laser cut parts. Adjustable trigger sensitivity, and on Viper Pro the distance between the trigger and the handle can be customized. Stainless steel side line-releaser and two lateral alligator clips. Speed ø 6.5-mm tahitian shaft, S-Power Speed ø 19-mm circular sling, and Vertical Spiro 65 reel on Venom Pro 90 and 75, Vertical Spiro 87 on Viper Pro 100 and 110-cm. Viper Pro is available in 75, 90, 100 and 110-cm lengths.

promotion_VP.jpg

Mares Mask Star

Mares Mask Star

Mask Star

Mask created specifically for spearfishing and freediving, offering a better field of vision paired with the smallest possible volume, thanks to the angled lenses and the extremely reduced eye-lens distance. Utilizing new types of silicone help eliminate undesirable fogging, and the dual-button ergonomic buckles make it even easier to adjust the strap. The Star is manufactured with a mono-silicone skirt.

Mask Mares i3

Mares Mask I3

Mask i3

An unparalled field of vision

• Tri-comfort skirt
• X-Shaped strap
• Quick-adjusting buckles

i3 scuba mask combines the advantages of the Tri-comfort technology with a huge field of vision. In addition to the wide central glass, smaller panels on each side guarantee peripheral vision that will blow you away. The ergonomic 2-button buckles allow for easy and secure adjustment of the strap even when diving with thick gloves.

NEW Mares Mask Essence LiquidSkinfor Fall 2016

NEW Mask for Fall 2016

Essence LiquidSkin

Mask Ess

Unique design for a unique technology

• Great comfort and ample field of vision
• Quick-adjusting buckles on the skirt
• Light, foldable, easy to store

The Essence scuba mask is the maximum expression of LiquidSkin technology. Silicone and glass come together and blend to create a mask that is truly one of a kind. Light and foldable,thanks to the buckles on the skirt, it offers a broad field of vision. All the features are orchestrated by the exclusive design, a synthesis of technology and aesthetics

In the Wake of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf Dolphins Found Sick and Dying in Larger Numbers Than Ever Before | response.restoration.noaa.gov

Gulf Dolphins Found Sick and Dying in Larger Numbers Than Ever Before

Dolphin with oil on its skin swimming.

A dolphin is observed with oil on its skin on August 5, 2010, in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. (Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries/Mandy Tumlin)

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Five Years Later

This is the third in a series of stories over the coming weeks looking at various topics related to the response, the Natural Resource Damage Assessment science, restoration efforts, and the future of the Gulf of Mexico.

APRIL 3, 2015 — Dolphins washing up dead in the northern Gulf of Mexico are not an uncommon phenomenon.

What has been uncommon, however, is how many moredead bottlenose dolphins have been observed in coastal waters affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the five years since. In addition to these alarmingly high numbers, researchers have found that bottlenose dolphins living in those areas are in poor health, plagued by chronic lung disease and failed pregnancies.

Independent and government scientists have undertaken a number of studies to understand how this oil spill may have affected dolphins, observed swimming through oil and with oil on their skin, living in waters along the Gulf Coast. These ongoing efforts have included examining and analyzing dead dolphins stranded on beaches, using photography to monitor living populations, and performing comprehensive health examinations on live dolphins in areas both affected and unaffected byDeepwater Horizon oil.

The results of these rigorous studies, which recently have been and continue to be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, show that, in the wake of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill and in the areas hardest hit, the dolphin populations of the northern Gulf of Mexico have been in crisis.

Troubled Waters

Left, scientists taking a blood sample from one dolphin in the water and right, a team of researchers in the water photographs a dolphin’s dorsal fin against a white square.

Left, in 2011 veterinary scientists took blood samples from bottlenose dolphins in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, as part of an overall health assessment. Right, the same team of researchers photographed dolphins’ dorsal fins as a means of identifying individuals and monitoring populations in the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. (NOAA)

Due south of New Orleans, Louisiana, and northwest of the Macondo oil well that gushed millions of barrels of oil for 87 days, lies Barataria Bay. Its boundaries are a complex tangle of inlets and islands, part of the marshy delta where the Mississippi River meets the Gulf of Mexico and year-round home to a group of bottlenose dolphins.

During the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this area was one of the most heavily oiled along the coast. Beginning the summer after the spill, record numbers of dolphins started stranding, or coming ashore, often dead, in Barataria Bay (Venn-Watson et al. 2015). One period of extremely high numbers of dolphin deaths in Barataria Bay, part of the ongoing, largest and longest-lasting dolphin die-off recorded in the Gulf of Mexico, persisted from August 2010 until December 2011.

In the summer of 2011, researchers also measured the health of dolphins living in Barataria Bay, comparing them with dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, an area untouched by the Deepwater Horizonoil spill.

Differences between the two populations were stark.

Many Barataria Bay dolphins were in very poor health, some of them significantly underweight and five times more likely to have moderate-to-severe lung disease. Notably, the dolphins of Barataria Bay also were suffering from disturbingly low levels of key stress hormones which could prevent their bodies from responding appropriately to stressful situations. (Schwacke et al. 2014)

“The magnitude of the health effects that we saw was surprising,” said NOAA scientist Dr. Lori Schwacke, who helped lead this study. “We’ve done these health assessments in a number of locations across the southeast U.S. coast and we’ve never seen animals that were in this poor of condition.”

The types of illnesses observed in live Barataria Bay dolphins, which had sufficient opportunities to inhale or ingest oil following the 2010 spill, match those found in people and other animals also exposed to oil. In addition, the levels of other pollutants, such as DDT and PCBs, which previously have been linked to adverse health effects in marine mammals, were much lower in Barataria Bay dolphins than those from the west coast of Florida.

Dead in the Water

Based on findings from the 2011 study, the outlook for dolphins living in one of the most heavily oiled areas of the Gulf was grim. Nearly 20 percent of the Barataria Bay dolphins examined that year were not expected to live, and in fact, the carcass of one of them was found dead less than six months later (Schwacke et al. 2014). Scientists have continued to monitor the dolphins of Barataria Bay to document their health, survival, and success giving birth.

Left, dolphin Y12 during a health assessment in August 2011 and right, after his carcass was recovered in January 2012.

Left, August 2011: Veterinarians collect a urine sample from Y12, a 16-year-old adult male bottlenose dolphin caught near Grand Isle, LA. Y12’s health evaluation determined that he was significantly underweight, anemic, and had indications of liver and lung disease. (NOAA) Right, January 2012: The carcass of Y12 was recovered on Grand Isle Beach. The visible ribs, prominent vertebral processes and depressions along the back are signs of extreme emaciation. (Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries)

Considering these health conditions, it should come as little surprise that record high numbers of dolphins have been dying along the coasts of Louisiana (especially Barataria Bay), Alabama, and Mississippi. This ongoing, higher-than-usual marine mammal die-off, known as an unusual mortality event, has lasted over four years and claimed more than a thousand marine mammals, mostly bottlenose dolphins. For comparison, the next longest lasting Gulf die-off (in 2005–2006) ended after roughly a year and a half (Litz et al. 2014 [PDF]).

Researchers studying this exceptionally long unusual mortality event, which began in February 2010, identified within it multiple distinct groupings of dolphin deaths. All but one of them occurred after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which released oil from April to July 2010, and corresponded with areas exposed heavily to the oil, particularly Barataria Bay (Venn-Watson et al. 2015).

In early 2011, the spring following the oil spill, Mississippi and Alabama saw a marked increase in dead dolphin calves, which either died late in pregnancy or soon after birth, and which would have been exposed to oil as they were developing.

The Gulf coasts of Florida and Texas, which received comparatively little oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill, did not see the same significant annual increases in dead dolphins as the other Gulf states (Venn-Watson et al. 2015). For example, Louisiana sees an average of 20 dead whales and dolphins wash up each year, but in 2011 alone, this state recorded 163 (Litz et al. 2014 [PDF]).

The one grouping of dolphin deaths starting before the spill, from March to May 2010, took place in Louisiana’s Lake Pontchartrain (a brackish lagoon) and western Mississippi. Researchers observed both low salinity levels in this lake and tell-tale skin lesions thought to be associated with low salinity levels on this group of dolphins. This combined evidence supports that short-term, freshwater exposure in addition to cold weather early in 2010 may have been key contributors to those dolphin deaths prior to the Deepwater Horizon spill.

Legacy of a Spill?

A bottlenose dolphin swims in the shallow waters along a sandy beach with orange oil boom.

A bottlenose dolphin swims in the shallow waters along the beach in Grand Isle, Louisiana, near oil containment boom that was deployed on May 28, 2010. Oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill began washing up on beaches here one month after the drilling unit exploded. (U.S. Coast Guard)

In the past, large dolphin die-offs in the Gulf of Mexico could usually be tied to short-lived, discrete events, such as morbillivirus and marine biotoxins (resulting from harmful algal blooms). While studies are ongoing, the current evidence does not support that these past causes are responsible for the current increases in dolphin deaths in the northern Gulf since 2010 (Litz et al. 2014).

However, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill—its timing, location, and nature—offers the strongest evidence for explaining why so many dolphins have been sick and dying in the Gulf since 2010. Ongoing studies are assessing disease among dolphins that have died and potential changes in dolphin health over the years since the spill.

As is the case for deep-sea corals, the full effects of this oil spill on the long-lived and slow-to-mature bottlenose dolphins and other dolphins and whales in the Gulf may not appear for years. Find more information related to dolphin health in the Gulf of Mexico on NOAA’s Unusual Mortality Event andGulf Spill Restoration websites.

By Ashley Braun, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration Web Editor.

Source: In the Wake of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf Dolphins Found Sick and Dying in Larger Numbers Than Ever Before | response.restoration.noaa.gov

Why PADI Divemasters Rock | Sport Diver

PADI Divemasters Rock

 They’re always there when you need them. See who’s giving a shoutout to their favorite PADI Divemaster.

Even for those who didn’t struggle, a Divemaster may have helped render your dives safer by ensuring your gear was donned correctly and buddy checks were properly conducted. For example, PADI Diver Patrick Loerbach wrote to PADI about the Divemaster who assisted him during his PADI Advanced Open Water Diver course at PADI Five Star Career Development Center Couples Resort in St. Ann, Jamaica, last summer.

“Divemaster Collin Whyte was always happy, chatty — and busy! He did such a great job of keeping us laughing that it was several dives before I came to see how organized and detailed he was in preparing the equipment, knowing the skills and experience of each diver, and making sure everyone was safe and comfortable. He was a stickler for making sure ascents and descents were done properly, and he had a knack for spotting cool things that we missed. Having Collin there always made for a better dive.”

First-Rate Boat Mates

Going on a boat dive? Don’t forget to bring along your favorite PADI Divemaster.

A Divemaster is often the person on the boat who assists you in getting ready to dive, from helping you set up your gear to making sure your air is on before you take that giant stride into the water. When you were new, it was most likely a Divemaster who helped you with your predive jitters by telling you funny stories. Once underwater, he led you to the best places to see the coolest creatures, helping you forget your nerves. Or, perhaps he trailed the dive group, ready to assist if needed, while ensuring the group stayed together and everyone returned safely back to the boat. Better still, at the end of your dive, it was probably the Divemaster who eased your passage out of the water by taking your fins and any other equipment you may have needed to hand off before climbing the ladder.

Are You Hero Material?

Aside from being heroically helpful, PADI Divemasters get to do some cool stuff — like live the dive life every day. They can travel the world, seeking employment at more than 6,200 PADI Dive Centers and Resorts; leading Discover Local Diving excursions, snorkeling tours and select PADI Adventure Dives; and teaching PADI ReActivate, PADI’s new scuba-refresher program. Divemasters can also apply to become Discover Scuba Diving leaders, Underwater Photographer instructors or Emergency Oxygen Provider instructors.

If you think you’d like to become a PADI Divemaster, visit padi.com for prerequisites for the course. If you meet the requirements, you can start your Divemaster program today with the PADI Divemaster Online course, or by enrolling at your local PADI Dive Center or Resort.

Source: Why PADI Divemasters Rock | Sport Diver

Attempting to Answer One Question Over and Over Again: Where Will the Oil Go?

 Where Will the Oil Go?

A heavy band of oil is visible on the surface of the Gulf of Mexico.

A heavy band of oil is visible on the surface of the Gulf of Mexico during an overflight of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on May 12, 2010. Predicting where oil like this will travel depends on variable factors including wind and currents. (NOAA)

 

Overflight surveys from airplanes or helicopters help responders find oil slicks as they move and break up across a potentially wide expanse of water. They give snapshots of where the oil is located and how it is behaving at a specific date and time, which NOAA uses to compare to our oceanographic models. (U.S. Coast Guard)

 

Two people in a helicopter over water.

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Five Years Later

This is the first in a series of stories over the coming weeks looking at various topics related to the response, the Natural Resource Damage Assessment science, restoration efforts, and the future of the Gulf of Mexico.

MARCH 30, 2015 — Oil spills raise all sorts of scientific questions, andNOAA’s job is to help answer them.

We have a saying that each oil spill is unique, but there is one question we get after almost every spill: Where will the oil go? One of our primary scientific products during a spill is a trajectory forecast, which often takes the form of a map showing where the oil is likely to travel and which shorelines and other environmentally or culturally sensitive areas might be at risk.

Oil spill responders need to know this information to know which shorelines to protect with containment boom, or where to stage cleanup equipment, or which areas should be closed to fishing or boating during a spill.

To help predict the movement of oil, wedeveloped the computer model GNOME to forecast the complex interactions among currents, winds, and other physical processes affecting oil’s movement in the ocean. We update this model daily with information gathered from field observations, such as those from trained observers tasked with flying over a spill to verify its often-changing location, and new forecasts for ocean currents and winds.

Modeling a Moving Target

One of the biggest challenges we’ve faced in trying to answer this question was, not surprisingly, the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Because of the continual release of oil—tens of thousands of barrels of oil each day—over nearly three months, we had to prepare hundreds of forecasts as more oil entered the Gulf of Mexico each day, was moved by ocean currents and winds, and was weathered, or physically, biologically, or chemically changed, by the environment and response efforts.

A typical forecast includes modeling the outlook of the oil’s spread over the next 24, 48, and 72 hours. This task began with the first trajectory our oceanographers issued early in the morning April 21, 2010 after being notified of the accident, and continued for the next 107 days in a row. (You canaccess all of the forecasts from this spill online.)

Once spilled into the marine environment, oil begins to move and spread surprisingly quickly but not necessarily in a straight line. In the open ocean, winds and currents can easily move oil 20 miles or more per day, and in the presence of strong ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream, oil and other drifting materials can travel more than 100 miles per day. Closer to the coast, tidal currents also can move and spread oil across coastal waters.

While the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig and wellhead were located only 50 miles offshore of Louisiana, it took several weeks for the slick to reach shore as shifting winds and meandering currents slowly moved the oil.

A Spill Playing on Loop

Over the duration of a typical spill, we’ll revise and reissue our forecast maps on a daily basis. These maps include our best prediction of where the oil might go and the regions of highest oil coverage, as well as what is known as a “confidence boundary.” This is a line encircling not just our best predictions for oil coverage but also a broader area on the map reflecting the full possible range in our forecasts [PDF].

Our oceanographers include this confidence boundary on the forecast maps to indicate that there is a chance that oil could be located anywhere inside its borders, depending on actual conditions for wind, weather, and currents.

Why is there a range of possible locations in the oil forecasts? Well, the movement of oil is very sensitive to ocean currents and wind, and predictions of oil movement rely on accurate predictions of the currents and wind at the spill site. In addition, sometimes the information we put into the model is based on an incomplete picture of a spill. Much of the time, the immense size of the Deepwater Horizon spill on the ocean surface meant that observations from specialists flying over the spill and even satellites couldn’t capture the full picture of where all the oil was each day.

Left, woman pointing and explaining maps on desk to man. Right, dark brown and red oil on ocean surface with two response ships.

Forecasters attempt to assess all the possible outcomes for a given scenario, estimate the likelihood of the different possibilities, and ultimately communicate risks to the decision makers. Left, NOAA oceanographer Amy MacFadyen explains how NOAA creates oil trajectory maps to then-Department of Commerce Secretary Gary Locke. Photo at right taken on May 27, 2010 near an ocean convergence zone shows dark brown and red emulsified oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The movement of oil is very sensitive to ocean currents and wind, and the size of this spill further complicated our attempts to model where the oil would go. (NOAA)

Our inevitably inexact knowledge of the many factors informing the trajectory model introduces a certain level of expected variation in its predictions, which is the situation with many models. Forecasters attempt to assess all the possible outcomes for a given scenario, estimate the likelihood of the different possibilities, and ultimately communicate risks to the decision makers.

In the case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we had the added complexity of a spill that spanned many different regions—from the deep Gulf of Mexico, where ocean circulation is dominated by the swift Loop Current, to the continental shelf and nearshore area where ocean circulation is influenced by freshwater flowing from the Mississippi River.  And let’s not forget that several tropical storms andhurricanes crossed the Gulf that summer [PDF].

A big concern was that if oil got into the main loop current, it could be transported to the Florida Keys, Cuba, the Bahamas, or up the eastern coast of the United States. Fortunately (for the Florida Keys) a giant eddy formed in the Gulf of Mexico in June 2010 (nicknamed Eddy Franklin after Benjamin Franklin, who did some of the early research on the Gulf Stream). This “Eddy Franklin” created a giant circular water current that kept the oil largely contained in the Gulf of Mexico.

Some of the NOAA forecast team likened our efforts that spring and summer to the movie Groundhog Day, in which the main character is forced to relive the same day over and over again. For our team, every day involved modeling the same oil spill again and again, but with constantly changing results.

Thinking back on that intense forecasting effort brings back memories packed with emotion—and exhaustion. But mostly, we recall with pride the important role our forecast team in Seattle played in answering the question “where will the oil go?”

By Doug Helton, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration Incident Operations Coordinator.

Source: Attempting to Answer One Question Over and Over Again: Where Will the Oil Go? | response.restoration.noaa.gov

Dive Life: Girls Just Wanna Change the World

Our sport was once a male-dominated pursuit, but women are changing the face of the scuba diving. To celebrate PADI is launching Women’s Dive Day.

What was once a male-dominated sport has become a woman’s realm.

While diving once might have been considered a male pursuit, women are changing the face of our sport. Dr. Sylvia Earle was more than just a 2014 Glamour Woman of the Year; she was also deemed the first Hero for the Planet by Time magazine, and designated a Living Legend by the Library of Congress. The member roster of the Women Divers Hall of Fame is filled with similar women who have shaped the world of diving. It’s time to celebrate female divers’ contributions to the sport, so PADI is launching Women’s Dive Day on July 18 to honor them.

Women to Watch

Szilvia Gogh is a well-known underwater stunt woman and founder of Miss Scuba (miss-scuba.com), which was designed to bring together women who share an enthusiasm for diving from all over the world. She was also one of the youngest women ever accepted into the PADI Course Director Training Course and recently held a female-friendly course to develop the next generation of Dive Instructors. “What inspired them to become PADI Professionals, I believe, was that they saw me live out my dreams,”says Gogh. “I get to do what I love and, to me, this means everything.”

For others, like Georgienne Bradley, diving helped marry interests in biology and photography. She was instrumental in helping Cocos Island become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. One of her proudest achievements though has been her involvement in scholar expeditions for young girls. “These trips allow girls to open up, not be intimidated, and come into their own,” says Bradley.

The women of SEDNA Epic Expedition (sednaepic.com) are another great example. Expedition leader Susan R. Eaton is surrounded by a team of female scientists, explorers and photographers who will embark on a 1,864-mile journey, snorkeling from Pond Inlet, Nunavut, to Inuvik, Northwest Territories in Canada. Their goal is to increase awareness of climate change and to inspire action, especially among youth and women.

A Day to Remember

If you’re interested in organizing an event or participating in a local dive for Women’s Dive Day, please send an email to womendive@padi.com or visit padi.com/women-dive.

Source: Dive Life: Girls Just Wanna Change the World | Sport Diver

Gear / How to Maintain Your Snorkel / Dive Mask

Gear Basic – Mask Maintenance

Critical scuba diving gear requires annual inspection and service by a qualified technician, but even dive masks — your window to the underwater world — need some special TLC. Here’s our guide to keeping your mask in tiptop shape in 5 easy steps.

Predive
1. If you haven’t replaced your mask strap with a stretchy fabric one, stretch out the strap to look for fine cracks. If you do find any, immediately replace the strap.
2. Examine the silicone of your mask skirt. The most common failure area on a mask is the feather-edged seal on the skirt. This can become imperfect or irregular in shape with time and heavy use, and that irregularity can create leaks.
3. Check all the buckles, which can crack, split or become clogged with debris that can interfere with how they function. Then check the frame of your mask for cracking, chips or other obvious signs of wear, especially in the areas immediately adjacent to the glass lens.

Postdive
1. To avoid mildew growth, rinse your mask in warm, fresh water and allow it to drip dry completely before packing it away.
2. Pack the mask loosely, so nothing distorts the mask skirt. Leaving it squashed into a weird position for a long period of time will cause it to take on an unnatural shape.

Source: Gear / Masks | Sport Diver

15 Tips for Avoiding Seasickness | Sport Diver

Why do scuba divers get motion sickness? It’s because your feet are telling your brain that you’re on solid ground, but you’re really rocking and rolling on the high seas. Your brain gets confused; you get sick.

Anyone who’s ever tried to keep their cookies settled while riding on a turbulent sea knows Kermit speaks the truth: It’s not easy being green. But it’s the rare ocean traveler who’s never turned the sickly shade. Nearly 100 percent of boat passengers will experience some level of seasickness on rough waters, says the Centers for Disease Control, and some of us seem to get green around the gills 100 percent of the time, regardless of the motion of the ocean.

If you’re one of the unlucky 100 percent, you can blame your parents, as it’s likely genetic. Fortunately, you don’t have to abandon ship. Motion sickness and the many factors that affect it can be largely controlled. Here’s how:

• Look up and out. At the most basic level, seasickness is a matter of sensory mismatch. When you’re sitting on a boat that’s rolling on the water, the body, inner ear and eyes all send different signals to the brain. Your brain gets confused and you get queasy. Stop tinkering with your computer and equipment and look out on the horizon, which usually appears very stable. Your peripheral vision will see the ocean swells that you feel. The whole picture will make more sense to your brain. Likewise brace yourself at the center of the boat where the rocking and rolling is less amplified.

• Tame your tummy. Have a Coke. It contains phosphoric acid and sugars, the same ingredients you’ll find in Emetrol, an over-the-counter anti-nausea drug.

• Apply some pressure. For centuries, traditional Chinese medicine has included acupuncture or acupressure on the inside of the wrist, at a spot called P6, as a way to suppress the nausea associated with motion sickness. You can find simple pressure bands like Sea-Band and Acuband at your local drug store. More sophisticated, battery-operated bands like Reliefband, which delivers an electrical pulse instead of pressure, are out there as well.

• Pop a pill. Meds like Dramamine, Bonine and even antihistamines like Benadryl can help quell motion sickness by blocking sensory-nerve transmission, which is a fancy way of saying they interrupt the flow of information from various places like the middle ear (involved in balance) to the brain. They can cause drowsiness and fuzzy thinking, however, so definitely take them for a test drive before diving on them. All the pills are about the same in effectiveness and side effects. But if one of them—Dramamine, Bonine, Marazine, etc.—seems to work better for you than the others, stick with it. The placebo effect is very strong with seasickness. And start taking the medication early: Pills are better prevention than treatment. After you feel queasy, it may be too late for pills to help, so start 12 to 24 hours before going to sea. This builds up a level of the drug in your body.

• Try wearing an anti-nausea band. Some people like “Sea Bands.” They are bracelets with dots that purportedly touch acupressure points on your wrist. They have never been proven effective, but some people swear by them.

• Wear a patch. Scopolamine, a drug that reduces the activity of nerve fibers in your inner ear, is hands down the most successful commercial seasickness medication on the market. You get a steady dose by wearing a medicated patch like the Transderm Scop patch behind your ear. Just be mindful of following directions and watching for side effects like dry mouth and blurred vision.

• Don’t try to read. Focusing your eyes on an apparently stationary target makes them even more convinced that your middle ears are wrong.

• Close your eyes. You may have to go below or find a place to stretch out and lie down, in which case you should close your eyes so they aren’t giving a no-motion message to your brain.

• Be clean and sober. Even a mild hangover can easily degenerate into seasickness, besides increasing various diving risks. Likewise, fatigue predisposes you to seasickness.

• Eat something. Opinions vary on this one, but most people feel better with a little bland food on their stomachs. Bread, bagels, pancakes, etc. are better than eggs and bacon. Coffee and orange juice are acidic and may irritate your stomach. Eat a little, not a lot.

• Relax. Anxiety contributes to seasickness. Those who are frightened by the ocean and the movement of the boat, or anxious about the diving later in the day, are more likely to become seasick.

• Watch for symptoms. Early signs include chills, headache and frequent burping. Now is the time to go on deck, or move to the lee rail if you’re already there.

• Plan ahead. All of these techniques work best if you apply them before you need them — to prevent getting motion sick in the first place. So take precautions early.

I’M SEASICK: NOW WHAT?

• If you feel the urge, let it rip. You’ll feel better almost immediately. Prolonging the inevitable only prolongs the pain.

• Don’t use a toilet. Or, God help us, a trash can. Go to the rail on the lee (downwind) side or use a bucket if one is designated. If you feel the urge coming, ask a crew member where to go. He or she will know the best place. Don’t be embarrassed; you’re not the first.

After a few hours, most people feel better. For some it takes a day or two. Almost everyone gets over seasickness within three days.

Source: 15 Tips for Avoiding Seasickness | Sport Diver

Restoring Coral Reefs | Ocean Today

Restoring Coral Reefs | Ocean Today.

Transcripción

NARRADOR:

Estos hermosos arrecifes de coral están en serios problemas. Ellos están siendo dañados o destruidos por la contaminación, las enfermedades, el cambio climático, y un gran número de encallamientos de buques.

Los corales cuerno de ciervo y cuerno de alce, se han convertido en especies amenazadas. Estos corales son los bloques de construcción de arrecifes en el Caribe y en los Cayos de la Florida.

Para abordar estos problemas, la NOAA y sus socios iniciaron un esfuerzo de restauración de arrecifes. Con el uso de técnicas innovadoras, como el cultivo de coral bajo el agua y el volver a unir piezas rotas del mismo, estos proyectos trasplantan y restauran miles de colonias de coral en sitios de arrecifes dañados.

Buzos capacitados han obtenido permisos especiales para trabajar en los arrecifes. Estos buzos transplantan nuevas piezas de coral mediante el uso de cemento o masilla epóxica. El objetivo es restaurar a los arrecifes coralinos para permitir que los habitantes naturales tengan una oportunidad de prosperar.

Los científicos han encontrado que los corales que crecen en los viveros son capaces de reproducirse en sus nuevos hogares. Esto significa que el cuerno de ciervo y el cuerno de alce, tienen una oportunidad de recuperarse. También significa que la diversidad genética se puede lograr a lo largo de los arrecifes, permitiendo ecosistemas más fuertes y resistentes en nuestro océano.

Siendo que los corales sanos son una parte vital del medio ambiente marino, la restauración de los arrecifes trae grandes beneficios a las aguas de este lugar y de todo el mundo.

Transcript

NARRATOR:

These beautiful coral reefs are in serious trouble.  They are being damaged or destroyed by pollution, disease, climate change, and a large number of ship groundings.

Staghorn and elkhorn coral have become threatened species.  These corals are the building blocks of reefs in the Caribbean and Florida Keys.

To address these issues, NOAA and its partners started a coral restoration effort.
Using innovative techniques, like underwater coral farming and reattaching broken coral pieces, these projects transplant and restore thousands of coral colonies on damaged reef sites.

Trained scuba divers are given special permission to work on the reefs.
These divers transplant the new pieces of coral by using cement or epoxy putty.
The goal is to restore the coral reef to allow the natural inhabitants a chance to thrive.

Scientists have found that the corals grown in the nurseries are able to reproduce in their new homes.  This means staghorn and elkhorn have a chance for a comeback.   It also means genetic diversity may be achieved along the reefs – allowing for stronger and more resilient ecosystems in our ocean.

Since healthy coral is a vital part of the ocean environment, restoring reefs brings great benefits to the waters here and around the world.

http://oceantoday.noaa.gov/restoringcoralreefs/embed.html

I3 Sunrise – Masks – Mares

NEW PRODUCT Winter 2014-2015

I3 Sunrise – Masks – Mares.

sunrise blue

I3 Sunrise

An unparalled field of vision

• Tri-comfort skirt
• X-Shaped strap
• Quick-adjusting buckles

The i3 scuba mask combines the advantages of the Tri-comfort technology with a huge field of vision. In addition to the wide central glass, smaller panels on each side guarantee peripheral vision that will blow you away. The ergonomic 2-button buckles allow for easy and secure adjustment of the strap even when diving with thick gloves.

Intova Sports HD Takes on the GoPro Hero 3

Sport HD II

Waterproof HD Video Sports Camera

SPECIFICATIONS
Video Resolution 1080p HD (30fps), 720p HD, 720p HD (60fps), WVGA1 (60fps), WVGA (30fps), VGA(30fps)
Video Codec H.264
Video File Type MP4
Photo Resolution 12MP, 8MP, 5MP, 3MP
Photo File Type JPEG
Digital zoom all modes except 1080p
Lens 140 degree wide angle, aperture f2.4
Depth Rating Waterproof to 200 ft / 60m
Important: to maintain waterproof seal, be sure to clean and remove debris from O-rings and lightly apply silicone grease before use.
Monitor 1.5″ TFT LCD
Power Built in 1400 mAh Li-ion rechargeable battery
Battery Life Recording time 3 hours @ 1080p with LCD off
Video/still image flip Flips image over when camera is held upside down.
Scene mode Auto, Night Scene, Sports, Landscape, Sunset, Sand-Snow, Spotlight, Diving,
Image Effects Art, Sepia, Negative, Black and  White, Vivid
Memory Support micro SD card up to 32 GB, Class 6 or 10 recommended.
Ports TV Mini out, Micro USB
Flotation Camera Floats
Housing Polycarbonate with UV injection, Patented Unibody design
Controls Full function control buttons
Dimensions (7 x 8.4 x 6) cm / (2.8 x 3.3 x 2.4) inches
Weight 179g / 6.3 oz
Model# SP1 N

Culebra Snorkeling Advice

Lion Fish 1286.1

      Snorkeling Advice  

diving_flag_animated 2

Snorkeling Gear

Snorkeling is one of the easiest, safest and most pleasant ways to explore the underwater world. Snorkel equipment is quite simple and you only need three essential pieces of gear: a mask, a snorkel, and a set of fins. The right equipment with the right fit will make your experience an event to remember.

Underwater Cameras make Snorkeling more enjoyable

Besides the essentials, there are a lot of snorkeling gear that can make your snorkel trip more fun, interesting, and comfortable. The best way to make your Culebra snorkeling trip more fun and interesting while viewing schools of tropical fish, living coral heads, sea sponges and more is to invest in an underwater camera. Take pictures of your snorkel buddies to show off at the office when you get back. Test out your artistic side by capturing photos of the beautiful sealife you encounter. And of course, let someone else get a few shots of you on your snorkel adventure.  When you return, you will be able to visit your Culebra snorkeling memories any time by pulling out these photos.

Snorkeling Exposure Protection / Skin Cover

Water absorbs heat about 800 times faster than air does, so you cool rapidly in water. Also, the snorkeling environment sometimes has a potential for scrapes, stings and burns. Exposure suits help you retain heat and provide protection against incidental skin injuries and sunburn.  Aside from re-appling sunblock with the right SPF level, wearing a rash guard for protection against bumping accidentally into the reef will help cover their skin as much as possible and increasing their comfort level while seeing the wonderful scenes under the ocean.

Get The Right Snorkeling Gear

Regardless of the type of mask such as the goggle style, oval, or panoramic; what is more important is that the mask fits your face perfectly. How to determine this? Hold the mask in front of your face and inhale a bit of air through the nose. When the mask seals against your face, that is the indication that it fits. When you feel it’s holding on to the face, remove your hand from it. When you feel that air hasn’t penetrated the mask, you can be sure that it will not be leaked with water too.

While most snorkeling locations around the world offer snorkeling gear rentals, it would far more advisable to have your own. The main reason behind this is for consistent comfort purposes – you’ll be more confident using equipment you’ve invested in and properly took care of.  This will ensure that you will be able to clearly see fish and coral in their natural habitat. The first step to a successful snorkeling experience therefore, is to buy or rent the right kind of mask, snorkel, and fins for your needs.

 

CSC  Snorkeling Gear Specials Fall - Winter 2013              mermaids5                       CSC Underwater Camera Special Fall - Winter 2013

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